Expert API for Early Detection of TB Disease with Forward Chaining and Certainty Factor Algorithms

Nicholas Dwiarto Wirasbawa, Christian Teguh Prasetya Widjaja, Christian Imanuel Wenji, Seng Hansun


Despite being a curable disease, Tuberculosis has become the leading cause of death of infectious disease prior to COVID-19. It has asymptomatic infections that are hard to detect for weeks or years. Although there have been many studies on Tuberculosis disease detection and prevention, very few of them discussing the creation of an expert system based on API. Hence, in this study we propose an Expert API that implements Forward Chaining and Certainty Factor algorithms for the task of Tuberculosis early detection. The evaluation of the proposed system was carried out using several testing methods and in-depth interview with medical experts. We got a satisfactory result for this study.

Full Text:



Hansun S. TB CNR Prediction Using H-WEMA: A Five Years Reflection. Int J Adv Soft Comput its Appl [Internet]. 2020;12(3):1–10. Available from:

Chakaya J, Khan M, Ntoumi F, Aklillu E, Fatima R, Mwaba P, et al. Global Tuberculosis Report 2020 – Reflections on the Global TB burden, treatment and prevention efforts. Int J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2021 Dec;113:S7–12. Available from:

World Health Organization. The End TB Strategy [Internet]. WHO. 2022. Available from:

Rangaka MX, Cavalcante SC, Marais BJ, Thim S, Martinson NA, Swaminathan S, et al. Controlling the seedbeds of tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection. Lancet [Internet]. 2015 Dec;386(10010):2344–53. Available from:

Red, Nurmaya ER. Tes Deteksi Dini TBC Belum Direkomendasikan, WHO Sebut Tingkat Akurasi Belum Bagus. [Internet]. 2021 Jun 23; Available from:

Leonardo J, Young JC, Hansun S. Early Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease with Fuzzy AHP Expert System. Compusoft [Internet]. 2019;8(10):3444–7. Available from:

Hossain MS, Ahmed F, Fatema-Tuj-Johora, Andersson K. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Tuberculosis under Uncertainty. J Med Syst [Internet]. 2017 Mar 30;41(3):43. Available from:

Subramanian H, Raj P. Hands-On RESTful API Design Patterns and Best Practices: Design, develop, and deploy highly adaptable, scalable, and secure RESTful web APIs. Packt Publishing; 2019. 378 p.

Fielding RT. Architectural styles and the design of networkbased software architectures [Internet]. University of California; 2000. Available from:

Wirasbawa ND, Wibawanto MDR, Kosasi A, Seng, Hansun. Scalable Building Management System for Offices and Co-Working Spaces. Indian J Econ Bus [Internet]. 2021;20(2):451–61. Available from: v20-2-30. Ijeb.pdf

Lako C. Studia Universitatis Petru Maior. Philologia. Stud Univ Petru Maior Philol [Internet]. 2015;(19):151–60. Available from:

Salman FM, Abu-Naser SS. Expert System for COVID-19 Diagnosis. Int J Acad Inf Syst Res [Internet]. 2020;4(3):1–13. Available from:

Akil I. Analisa efektifitas metode forward chaining dan backward chaining pada sistem pakar. J Pilar Nusa Mandiri [Internet]. 2017;13(1):35–42. Available from:

Sembiring AS, Sulindawaty, Manahan O, Napitupulu MH, Hasugian PS, Riandari F, et al. Implementation of Certainty Factor Method for Expert System. J Phys Conf Ser [Internet]. 2019 Aug 1;1255(1):012065. Available from:

Zhang L, Zhang B. Information Synthesis in Multi-Granular Computing. In: Quotient Space Based Problem Solving [Internet]. Elsevier; 2014. p. 105–27. Available from:

Caelina V. Tuberculosis Symptoms [Internet]. 2021. Available from:

Aottiwerch N, Kokaew U. Design Computer-assisted Learning in an Online Augmented Reality Environment based on Shneiderman’s Eight Golden Rules. In: 2017 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE) [Internet]. IEEE; 2017. p. 1–5. Available from:

Mochammad Aldi Kushendriawan, Harry Budi Santoso, Panca O. Hadi Putra, Martin Schrepp. Evaluating User Experience of a Mobile Health Application ‘Halodoc’ using User Experience Questionnaire and Usability Testing. J Sist Inf [Internet]. 2021 Apr 29;17(1):58–71. Available from:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.