A Modified On-Demand Vector Distance Routing Protocol Incorporating Alternate Vehicle-RSU-Vehicle and Vehicle-RSU- RSU Paths

Basil Al-Kasasbeh


The Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is an ad-hoc wireless network that allows moving or stationary vehicles to communicate with each other and with the roadside to facilitate various applications, including safety, collision avoidance, and traffic monitoring. The routing protocols provide vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communication for the VANET. However, due to the rapid mobility of the vehicles in the network, these protocols suffer from broken links, which leads to unreachable transmission. This paper proposes a new routing protocol based on the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol to locate the optimal routing of packets in moving vehicles by constructing alternative stable paths with the roadside unit. In the case of the broken links, the alternative stable paths can be used for message transmission, reducing packet discarding. The proposed protocol was simulated, and the results were compared with the original AODV. According to the obtained results, the proposed protocol improves the performance of the AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and delivery ratio.

Full Text:



Srilakshmi, U., et al., A secure optimization routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Access, 2022. 10: p. 14260-14269.

2. Benguenane, M., A. Korichi, and N. Azzaoui. Geographical Routing Protocols in VANets: Performance and Security Analysis. in 2nd International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Artificial Intelligence (ICIAI 2021). 2022. Atlantis Press.

3. Rao, R.S., P. Singh, and S.A. Khan, State of the Art VANETs Routing Protocols: A Literature Review. International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, 2022. 7(3): p. 380-398.

4. Hassan, A., R. Attia, and R. Rizk, Internet of Vehicles and Intelligent Routing: A Survey-Based Study, in International Conference on Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications. 2022, Springer: Cario, Egypt p. 517-531.

5. Alusta, F.M., Investigation of delay tolerant network routing protocols with energy consumption analysis. 2018, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ).

6. Dhand, G. and S. Tyagi, Performance Analysis of various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2018. 13(10): p. 7378-7382.

7. Saini, T.K. and S.C. Sharma, Recent advancements, review analysis, and extensions of the AODV with the illustration of the applied concept. Ad Hoc Networks, 2020. 103: p. 102148.

8. Alabdullah, M.G.K., et al., Analysis and simulation of three MANET routing protocols: A research on AODV, DSR & DSDV characteristics and their performance evaluation. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences, 2019. 7(3): p. 1228-1238.

9. Al-Absi, M.A., et al., Moving ad hoc networks—A comparative study. Sustainability, 2021. 13(11): p. 6187.

10. Abedi, O., M. Fathy, and J. Taghiloo. Enhancing AODV routing protocol using mobility parameters in VANET. in 2008 IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications. 2008. IEEE.

11. Wang, X.-b., Y.-l. Yang, and J.-w. An, Multi-metric routing decisions in vanet, in 2009 Eighth IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing. 2009, IEEE: NW Washington, DC; United States. p. 551-556.

12. Ding, B., et al., An improved AODV routing protocol for VANETs, in 2011 international conference on wireless communications and signal processing (wcsp). 2011, IEEE: Nanjing,China. p. 1-5.

13. Sun, Y., Y. Chen, and Y. Xu, A GPS enhanced routing protocol for vehicular Ad-hoc network, in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics. 2011, IEEE: Phuket, Thailand. p. 2096-2101.

14. Yu, X., H. Guo, and W.-C. Wong, A reliable routing protocol for VANET communications, in 2011 7th international wireless communications and mobile computing conference. 2011, IEEE: Istanbul, Turkey. p. 1748-1753.

15. Aswathy, M. and C. Tripti, An enhancement to AODV protocol for efficient routing in VANET–A cluster based approach, in Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications. 2012, Springer. p. 1027-1032.

16. Keshavarz, H., R.M. Noor, and E. Mostajeran, Using routing table flag to improve performance of AODV routing protocol for VANETs environment, in The 9th International Conference on Computing and InformationTechnology (IC2IT2013). 2013, Springer: Bangkok, Thailand. p. 73-82.

17. Saha, S., U. Roy, and D. Sinha, AODV routing protocol modification with dqueue (dqAODV) for VANET in city scenarios, in 2014 International Conference on High Performance Computing and Applications (ICHPCA). 2014, IEEE: Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. p. 1-6.

18. Raju, S. and D. Parikh, Performance Improvement in VANET” by Modifying AODV Routing Protocol”. Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems, 2015. 6(5).

19. He, Y., W. Xu, and X. Lin, A stable routing protocol for highway mobility over vehicular ad-hoc networks, in 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). 2015, IEEE: Glasgow, UK. p. 1-5.

20. Feyzi, A. and V. Sattari-Naeini, Application of fuzzy logic for selecting the route in AODV routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks, in 2015 23rd Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering. 2015, IEEE: Tehran, Iran. p. 684-687.

21. Wang, M., et al., Asymptotic throughput capacity analysis of VANETs exploiting mobility diversity. IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, 2015. 64(9): p. 4187-4202.

22. Moussaoui, B., et al., Towards enhanced reactive routing in urban Vehicular Ad hoc Networks, in 2015 International Conference on Protocol Engineering (ICPE) and International Conference on New Technologies of Distributed Systems (NTDS). 2015, IEEE: Paris, France. p. 1-6.

23. Mubarek, F.S., et al., Urban-AODV: an improved AODV protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks in urban environment. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 2018. 7(4): p. 3030-3036.

24. Zhang, W., et al., An improved AODV routing protocol based on social relationship mining for VANET, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communication and Information Processing. 2018: Qingdao, China. p. 217-221.

25. Al-Shabi, M.A., Evaluation the performance of MAODV and AODV protocols in VANETs models. International Journal of Computer Science and Security (IJCSS), 2020. 14(1): p. 1.

26. Ahamed, A. and H. Vakilzadian, Impact of direction parameter in performance of modified AODV in VANET. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 2020. 9(3): p. 40.

27. Ebadinezhad, S., Design and Analysis of An Improved AODV Protocol Based on Clustering Approach for Internet of Vehicles (AODV-CD). International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, 2021. 67.

28. Malik, S. and P.K. Sahu, A comparative study on routing protocols for VANETs. Heliyon, 2019. 5(8): p. e02340.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31449/inf.v46i6.4226

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.