VOLUME 17, NUMBER 1, 1993


Methodologies from Machine Learning in Data Analysis and Software

D. Michie
The Turning Institute, George House, 36 North Hanover Street, Glasgow G1 2AD

In the last few decades the rise of computing and telecommunications has flooded the world of government, business, medicine and engineering with unprecedented volumes of stored data. These databases provide the raw material for information supply but have been been largely impenetrable as potential sources of export knowledge. Computer-oriented techniques can now be used, however, in integration with established methods from classical statistics to generate rule-structured classifiers which not only make a better job of classifying new data sampled from the same source but also possess the quality of clear explanatory structure. New developments in the computer induction of decision rules have contributed to two areas, multivariate data analysis and computer assisted software engineering. Practical connections between the two are thereby coming to light. This paper reviews some of the more significant of these developments. (pp. 3-12)

Keywords: artificial intelligence, machine learning, software

Analytical Form Solution of the Direct Kinematics of a 4-4 Fully In-Parallel Actuated Six Degree-of Freedom Mechanism

C. Innocenti
DIEM - Facolta di Ingegneria - Universita di Bologna Viale Risorgimento, 2 - 40136 Bologna - ITALY; Meccapp8@ingbo1.cineca.it
V. Parenti-Castelli
Istituto di Ingegneria Facolta di Ingegneria - Universita di Ferrara Via Scandiana, 21 - 41100 Ferrara - ITALY

The paper presents the direct position analysis in analytical form of a six-degree-of-freedom 4-4 fully-parallel mechanism. For a given set of actuator displacements the mechanism becomes a structure and the analysis finds all the possible closures of the structure. The analysis is preformed in two steps. First, the two closures of the tetrahedron-like sub chain of the structure are found. Then, for each tetrahedron closure, transcendental equations are determined that represent the closure of the remaining part of the 4-4 structure. The two equations can be reduced to algebraic equations and, after eliminating the unwanted unknowns, a final 8th order equation is the only one unknown is obtained. Hence, the maximum number of possible real closures of the 4-4 structure is sixteen. Numerical examples are reported which illustrate and confirm the new theoretical result.(pp. 13-20)

Keywords: robots, kinematics, parallel mechanisms, closure equations

Towards a Mathematical Theory of Natural-Language Communication

Vladmir A. Fomichov
Department Math. Provision of Information - Processing and Control Systems, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, Bolshoy Vuzovsky pereulok, 3/12, 109028 Moscow, Russia; onims@miem.msk.su

The need of effective mathematical means for solving a number of tasks associated with the design of natural-language--processing systems (NLPSs) is argued. The basic ideas of cognitive science concerning natural language (NL) understanding are stated. It is shown that the main popular approaches to the formalization of NL-semantics do not satisfy the requirements of cognitive science and computer science as concerns many important aspects of NL-communication. The interdisciplinary problem of developing a mathematical theory of NL-communication (as a collection of models based on common mathematical means of describing knowledge and texts structured meanings and being useful for the design of NLPSs) is posed. Several principles of a new approach to the mathematical study of NL-communication called Integral Formal Semantics are set forth. This approach provides, in particular, the definition of a new class of formal languages called standard K-languages. some new opportunities afforded by standard K-languages for modeling NL-communication are characterized. The conclusion is drawn that the premises have been created already for developing in larger scope than before the researches aimed at working out a mathematical theory of NL-communication. It is noted that such a theory will be, in essence, cognitive mathematical linguistics and may called also mathematical linguocybernetics taking into account the peculiarities of its methods and models.(pp. 21-34)

Keywords: communication, formalization, integral formal semantics, knowledge, liguocybernetics, mathematical linguistics, natural language processing.

ALPHA AXP Overview

Jurij Silc
Jozef Stefan Institute Laboratory for Computer Architectures,Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia; jurij.silc@ijs.si
Borut Robic
Jozef Stefan Institute Laboratory for Computer Architectures, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.robic@ijs.si
Joze Buh
EuroComputer Systems Digital Authorization Representative, Vojkova 50, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The paper describes the Alpha AXP architecture and some existing implementations. It is a true 64-bit RISC architecture supporting multiple instruction issue, shared-memory multiprocessing, and several today's leading operating system environments. The first Alpha AXP microprocessor DECchip 21064 and several hardware products using it are also briefly described.(pp. 35-40)

Keywords: Alpha AXP architecture, RISC architecture, multiple instruction issue, shared-memory multiprocessing, overview

Open Secure Model And Its Functionality In Networks With Value-Added Services

Borka Jerman-Blazic
Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The contribution gives an overview of the security functions employed in the Value Added Networks technology. The overview represents briefly the user requirements for secure communication, the basic threats to which communication systems are exposed and the framework of Open Secure Model defining the security functions and services to be used in an open network. The security mechanisms used for provision of the security services and functions are briefly described. Several applications used in Value Added Networks with in built security functions are briefly introduced at the end.(pp. 41-51)

Keywords: security mechanisms, kryptography, networks, value-added services

Real AI

Matjaz Gams
Jozef Stefan Insitute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia; matjaz.gams@ijs.si

In the first part, four viewpoints on AI are presented. It is proposed that a program exhibiting AI is one that can change as a result of interactions with the environment. While no program can be proclaimed as intelligent at the moment, intelligence may be just an emerging property of successful information machines or beings. In the second part, ideas, problems and misconceptions about AI are analysed through grouping into three categories: (1) facts - opinions that are supported by facts; (2) legends - opinions, based on facts but largely exaggerated; (3) myths -opinions not based on facts.(pp. 52-58)

Keywords: artificial intelligence, viewpoint

Regular Graphs Are 'Difficult' For Colouring

Janez Zerovnik
University of Maribor, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Smetanova 17, Maribor, Slovenia

Let k be 3 or 4. In this two cases we prove that the decision problem of k-colorability when restricted to delta-regular graphs is NP-complete for any delta greater than or equal to k+1.(pp. 59-64)

Keywords: graph colouring, decision problem, NP-completeness, regular graphs

Metaphysicalism Of Informing

Anton P. Zeleznikar
Volariceva ul 8, 61111 Ljubljana,Slovenia; anoton.p.zeleznikar@ijs.si

This paper is an introduction to the phenomena of metaphysical informing occuring within an informational entity [Zeleznikar 92a, Zeleznikar 92b]. The basic question is how to structure and how to organize the process of informing within the metaphysical triplet of informing, counterforming, and informational embedding, which perform cyclically, in parallel, and spontaneously in a complex entity-metaphysical cycle. The problem of the so-called metaphysical informing (called metaphysicalism) has to be solved conceptually and then, constructively, that is, in a language-formalized (machined) way. The open-cylic-parallel and spontaneous informing hides potentiality of intelligence (intelligent information) which through informing, counterforming, and informational embedding of an informational entity in a question comes to the informational surface (of an observer). The aim of this paper is to expose certain possibilities of metaphysical informing within machines, programs, and tools performing in an informationallly arising environment. Metaphysicalism, that is cyclic, spontaneous, entity-intentional; and informationally open informing, seems to be the most fundamental problem which has to be solved formally (constructively) on the way to informational problem which has to be solved formally (constructively) on the way to informational machine. To some extent, the possibilities of such proceedings are already visible.(pp. 65-80)

Keywords: counterinforming, cyclicity, informational embedding, informing, intelligence, metaphysicalism, parallelism.